An'anaviy retseptlar

Viski hikmati: 4 ta viski afsonasi bekor qilindi

Viski hikmati: 4 ta viski afsonasi bekor qilindi

Sizning viskingizni viskingizdan bilasizmi?

Fred Minnik, muallifi Viski ayollari: Ayollar Burbon, skotch va irland viskisini qanday qutqargani haqida hikoya qilinmagan hikoya, afsonaviy jigarrang narsalar haqidagi faktlarni ochib beradi.

Afsona: Viski "e" harfi bilan yozilgan yoki yozilmagan.
Haqiqat: Imlo qoidalari o'zboshimchalik bilan tuzilgan va viski kelib chiqqan mamlakatni anglatmaydi.

Kanadalik va skotchli distillashchilar odatda "viski" imlosidan foydalanadilar, Amerika va Irlandiya brendlari odatda "viski" bilan ketadi, deydi Minnik. Biroq, istisnolar ko'p, shu jumladan Amerika markalari, Maker Mark va Balcones, o'z nomlarida "viski" ishlatadilar.

Afsona: Viski har doim erkaklar tomonidan yoqtiriladigan ruh bo'lib kelgan.
Fakt: Ayollar yuz yillar davomida ichishgan va viski ishlab chiqarishgan.

Ayollar va ularning viskiga bo'lgan muhabbatlari kamida 500 yil, qirolicha Yelizaveta I davriga to'g'ri keladi, afsonaga ko'ra, u ichkilikdan bahramand bo'lgan va odil jinsiy aloqa vakillari, o'z kunlarini "bir parcha go'sht va dram ", deydi Minnik.

AQShda 19-asr oxiri-20-asr boshlariga qadar viski ishlab chiqarish sariyog ', pishirish, tikuvchilik va boshqa uy ishlari bilan bir qatorda ayollarning ishi hisoblangan. Ammo viski ishlab chiqarish sanoatga aylanganda, erkaklar o'z rollarini egallashdi.

Afsona: Burbon Kentukki shahrida tayyorlanishi kerak.
Fakt: Burbonni AQShning istalgan joyida ishlab chiqarish mumkin.

Minnikning so'zlariga ko'ra, federal hukumat tomonidan "AQShda ishlab chiqarilgan viski" deb ta'riflangan Burbon, 1964 yilda Kongress uni "Amerika ruhi" deb e'lon qilganida, geografik jihatdan himoyalangan edi. Bungacha meksikalik ishlab chiqaruvchilar burbon sifatida arzonroq viski sotishgan. Konyak, skotch va shampan-bu geografik ko'rsatilgan spirtli ichimliklarning yana uchta misoli.

Mif: Burbon amerikalik eman bochkasida qarishi kerak.
Fakt: Burbonni har qanday mamlakatdan eman bilan har qanday shakldagi idishda yasash mumkin, chunki u yangi, qarish talab qilinmaydi.

Federal ta'rifga ko'ra, burbon spirtli ichimliklar miqdori bo'yicha 80 foizdan oshmasligi kerak, yoki 160 ta dalil; "51% dan kam bo'lmagan makkajo'xori fermentlangan mashidan ishlab chiqarilishi va 62,5% dan ko'p bo'lmagan alkogolli hajmda saqlanishi kerak (125 dalil).

Biroq, burbonni "to'g'ri" deb hisoblash uchun uning yoshi kamida ikki yil bo'lishi kerak, deydi Minnik. Bundan tashqari, "Kentukki tekis burbon viskisi" sifatida sotiladigan har qanday ichimlik Bluegrass shtatida distillangan bo'lishi kerak.

- Robert DiGiakomo, Ichimlik millati

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Xavotirga arziydigan bitta kamchilik: yuqori sifatli viski

So'nggi paytlarda ommaviy axborot vositalarida oziq -ovqat tanqisligi haqida shov -shuv ko'tarildi, biz Velveeta, Sriracha, tovuq qanotlari va pichoqlar kabi yaqinlashayotgan oziq -ovqat mahsulotlari haqida eshitganingizga aminmiz.

Ammo e'tibor berish va tashvishlanish kerak bo'lgan bitta kamchilik-bu yuqori sifatli viski. Viski mutaxassisi va muallifi Yan Buxtonning so'zlariga ko'ra O'limdan oldin sinab ko'rish uchun 101 viski,Shotlandiya sanoatining iflos kichik siri shundaki, ular yuqori narxlarga qaram bo'lib qolishgan, lekin eski viski tugagan.

Nega bizda viski tugayapti? Esquire tushuntiradi,

Talabning keskin oshishi shuni ko'rsatadiki, viski distillash zavodlari yuqori sifatli, eski viskini etkazib berishni kamaytiradi. Ular endi 󈨞s -ga qaytib, ko'proq aktsiyalarni yotqizishni xohlaydilar.

Distillashchilar kurashni jiddiy his qilmoqdalar - o'tgan yili Maker Mark o'z burbonini sug'orishga urindi va Buffalo Trace mumkin bo'lgan tanqislik haqida ogohlantirdi.

Devid King, miloddan avvalgi BenRiach va The Glenrothes kabi distillash zavodlariga ega bo'lgan Anchor Distilling kompaniyasi hikoya qiladi Esquire,

Xo'sh, nima qilish kerak? Sizni yutib yubormaydigan, o'z fikringizni va tangingizni yoshroq va arzonroq viski brendlariga ochib, aqldan ozgan alkogol kabi yig'ishni boshlagan mashhur brendlarga amal qiling.


Pivo ichimlikdan oldin

Qadimgi so'zda aytilganidek, & quot; Spirtli ichimlikdan oldin pivo iching va siz hech qachon kasal bo'lmagansiz. Pivodan oldin ichkilikbozlik, siz aniq tushunasiz. & Quot Bu men yashaydigan qoidani buzadi - hech qachon qofiyali maslahatlarga ishonma - lekin buni tasdiqlovchi dalillar bor ekan. Men Texas universiteti farmakologiya va toksikologiya professori doktor Rueben Gonsales bilan gaplashdim va u bu borada qiziqarli gaplarni aytdi. Spirtli ichimliklar konsentratsiyasining pivo (ABV 4 %) va qattiq spirtli ichimliklar (ABV 40 %) o'rtasidagi farqi, dalilga qarab, taxminan o'n barobar ko'pdir. Hatto aralash ichimlikda ham, siz, ehtimol, ABVning 10 dan 20 foizigacha gapirasiz. Agar siz pivoni ma'lum tezlikda ichishni boshlasangiz va shu darajada aralash ichimlikni ichishni davom ettirsangiz, u sekin haydashni va gazni bosishni yoqtiradi. Og'zingiz alkogol kontsentratsiyasining farqini bilmasligi mumkin, lekin tanangiz biladi. Bundan farqli o'laroq, agar siz qattiq ichimlik ichishni boshlasangiz, siz sekinroq ichasiz va o'zingizni tezroq mast his qilasiz. Pivoga o'tish va keyin bir xil tezlikda ichish spirtli ichimliklar oqimining kamayishiga olib keladi.

Doktor Gonsales menga yuborgan, bu haqiqatan ham ko'proq ishonchga ega bo'lgan nazorat ostida bo'lgan tadqiqot bor. Tadqiqot "Alkogolli ichimliklar konsentratsiyasi va karbonatlanish: qondagi alkogol darajasiga ta'siri" deb nomlangan bo'lib, 2007 yilda Manchester va Lankashir universitetlari tomonidan o'tkazilgan. 21 kishidan iborat kichik test guruhi qiziqarli xulosalarga keldi. Bir xulosaga kelsak, suyultirilgan alkogol konsentratsiyasi kuchli aralashmalarga qaraganda tezroq so'riladi. Boshqacha qilib aytganda, aralash ichimlik ichidagi alkogol, qonga o'qqa tutilgan spirtning ekvivalent miqdoridan tezroq kiradi. Tadqiqotdan:

Oshqozonda oziq -ovqat bo'lmaganda, oz miqdordagi konsentrlangan alkogol oshqozon orqali ko'proq miqdorda suyultirilgan alkogol bilan bir xil tezlikda o'tadi, bu oshqozon metabolizmiga oz vaqt beradi.

Boshqacha aytganda, massa va hajm jihatidan kattaroq bo'lganligi sababli, aralash ichimlik ovqat hazm qilish tizimida ko'proq vaqt sarflaydi, u erda so'riladi. Manoga ega. Shunday qilib, agar siz oshqozoningizni pivo bilan to'ldirsangiz va siz alkogolning konsentratsiyasini oshirib, qattiq ichimlik qo'shsangiz, aslida oshqozoningizga aralash ichimlik tayyorlaysiz. U erda uzoq vaqt o'tirib, sizni ko'proq ichkilikka soladi. Boshqa tomondan, agar siz qattiq ichimlikdan boshlasangiz, oshqozoningizdagi eritma spirtning yuqori konsentratsiyasidan boshlanadi va u sizdan tezroq o'tadi. Siz o'zingizni ko'proq mast his qilasiz va keyinchalik pivo ichish ehtimoli kamroq bo'ladi. O'zingizni tezlashtiring, manyak!


Oziq -ovqat haqidagi eng yaxshi afsonalar nihoyat bekor qilindi

Biz uzoq vaqtdan beri ovqat yeymiz - insoniyat paydo bo'lganidan beri. Yillar davomida biz oziq -ovqat afsonalarining to'liq yukini yaratdik, ularning aksariyati haqiqatga to'g'ri kelmaydi. Bu erda oziq-ovqatga asoslangan eng uzoq davom etadigan va haqiqatan ham noto'g'ri bo'lgan afsonalar.

Surat muallifi: Logan Bannatyne / LoLoStock & copy2014, Logan Bannatyne

Surat muallifi: Zsolt Nyulaszi & copy Zsolt Nyulaszi, Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan.

1. 5 soniyali qoida

Siz qanchalik haqiqat bo'lishini xohlasangiz ham, bu haqiqatga aylanmaydi. Bu & quot; besh soniya qoida & quot; tarafdorlari uchun erga tushgan pitssa bo'lagini erga atigi besh soniyadan ozroq yeyish yaxshidir, degan fikr ikki baravar ko'p. Biz siz uni yemaysiz deb aytmayapmiz - davom eting, lekin bilingki, ilm siz tomonda emas.

2. Ko'knori urug'i simitlari giyohvand moddalar bilan o'ralgan

Albatta, geroin oddiy ko'knor urug'idan olingan, ammo siz dori -darmonlar testida ijobiy natija berish uchun ularning ko'pini eyishingiz kerak bo'ladi. Bu shuni anglatadiki, siz ertalab yeygan bagel yoki kek sizni orzu qilgan ishingizdan mahrum qilmaydi. Giyohvandlik testidan o'tolmaslik uchun siz taxminan 15 ta simit yeyishingiz kerak.

3. Twinkies hech qachon yomonlashmaydi

Oddiy donolik (va zombi filmlari) shuni ko'rsatadiki, Twinkies hech qachon sirli kimyoviy birikmalar tufayli hech qachon yomonlashmaydi. Bu noto'g'ri va ularning saqlash muddati atigi 25 kun. Bu apokalipsisdan omon qolish uchun etarli vaqt emas.

4. Gum oshqozoningizda 7 yil qoladi

Saqichni yutib yuborish bolalikdagi eng katta noo'rinlardan biridir, ko'pchilik bolalar o'yin maydonchasida saqich sizning oshqozoningizda ettita uzoq va yolg'iz qolishini aytadi. Bilasizmi? Bu to'g'ri emas. U bir necha kun ichida sizning tizimingizdan o'tadi.

5. Pop -roklar va soda birdaniga o'limga teng

Bolalikdan yana bir mish-mishlar: "Pop Rok" gazli konfet sumkasini yeyish va uzun bo'yli tetiklantiruvchi stakan soda ichish, oshqozoningizni portlatib o'ldiradi. Xo'sh, xushxabar, tashvishlanuvchilar: Bu ikkita mahsulot umuman o'zaro ta'sir qilmaydi, shuning uchun shaharga boring.

6. Red M & M ning saraton kasalligining sababi

Hikoya qizil M & ampM saraton kasalligiga sabab bo'lganligi, 2 -sonli Qizil Bo'yoq agenti tufayli saraton kasalligiga sabab bo'lgani aytiladi. qildi Bo'yoq kalamushlarda saraton kasalligini keltirib chiqarganini aniqlang, qizil M & ampM -da hech qachon hech qanday narsa bo'lmagan. Mars konfet kompaniyasi baribir rangini to'xtatdi, faqat jamoatchilikning noroziligini yo'qotish uchun.

7. Yotishdan oldin ovqatlanishni to'xtatish

Ko'p odamlar "haqiqatga" qasam ichishadi, yotishdan oldin yog'li ovqatlar bilan to'ldirish, boshlanishidan oldin kechqurun to'xtaydi. Afsuski, buni tasdiqlovchi dalillar yo'q. Ovqatni ichishni boshlashdan oldin, u oshqozonda bo'lishi kerak, chunki u qalqishni to'xtatuvchi ta'sir ko'rsatadi. Mast bo'lganingizda yotishdan oldin ovqatlanish, baribir, juda ajoyib va ​​taomning ta'mini yaxshilaydi. Bu haqiqat.

8. Absinthe sizni gallyutsinatsiyaga olib keladi

Absinthe ishlab chiqaruvchilari uzoq vaqtdan beri bu narsa sizni gallyutsinatsiyaga olib keladi degan shahar afsonasi bilan savdo qilishgan. Spirtli ichimliklar juda kulgili bo'lishi mumkin bo'lsa -da, sizni aroq, viski yoki boshqa ruhdan ko'ra gallyutsinatsiyaga olib kelishi ehtimoldan yiroq emas. Albatta, bu sizni mast qilishi mumkin, shuning uchun har doim shunday bo'ladi.

9. Mikroto'lqinli taomlar ozuqa moddalarini o'ldiradi

Hatto & quotnuking & quot atamasi ham mikroto'lqinli pechlarning sog'likka zarar etkazuvchi qobiliyatini bildiradi. Ammo, agar biz vaqti -vaqti bilan sulforafan (brokkolida) kabi ozuqa moddalari haqida gapirmasak, bu to'g'ri emas. Kechki ovqatni mikroto'lqinli pechda ko'p miqdorda ozuqa moddalari saqlanib qoladi. Ammo ta'mi boshqa hikoya.


3. Tabiiy vino - bu shunchaki moda

Garchi bu kechki paytlarning shov -shuvli toifasi bo'lsa -da, tabiiy sharob ming yillar davomida mavjud bo'lgan, chunki birinchi aqlli, chanqoq odamlar mayizni maydalangan uzumni xamirturush solingan idishga tashlab, nima bo'lganini ko'rishga qaror qilishgan. "Rimliklar uzumzorlariga" Roundup "sepmaganlar va Burgundiya sistersiyalik rohiblari xamirturush sotib olmaganlar, - deydi San -Diegodagi Madison bar menejeri Denni Kuhner. "Sharob ixlosmandlari orasida bu xalq harakati faqat o'sishda davom etadi." Organik mahsulotlar, erkin parranda go'shti va butun ovqatlar bizning doimiy oshxona leksikonimizga aylangani kabi, tabiiy sharob ham shu erda.

Sinash uchun shisha: 2017 yil Domaine Carneros Mashhur darvozabon Pinot Noir (90 dollar), u deyarli 30 yil davomida sertifikatlangan-organik uzumzorlarda o'stiriladigan 12 ta alohida pinot noiridan qilingan.


Viski hikmati: 4 ta viski afsonasi - retseptlar

Moviy o'tloqlar va naslli fermalarning tepaliklari orasida joylashgan, tarixiy Vudford qo'riqxonasi distillash zavodida joylashgan.

Kentukki shtatining eng qadimgi va eng kichik distillash zavodlaridan biri, hozirgi Vudford zaxiradagi distillash zavodi tarixga asoslangan bo'lib, 1812 yilda Ilyos Pepper viski tayyorlashni boshlagan Kentukki shahrining eng qadimgi distillash joyida o'tirgan. Xuddi shu muqaddas maydonlarda yillar o'tib Master Distiller Jeyms Kristofer Krou mukammal bo'lgan. uning viskisini tayyorlash usullari, bugungi kunda odatiy holga aylangan, shu jumladan nordon pyureni fermentatsiyaga aylantirish.

Distilleryada 500 metr uzunlikdagi tortish quvvati bilan bochka yugurish, misdan yasalgan idishlar va 100 yillik sarv yog'ochli fermentlar ishlab chiqariladi. “Biz, shuningdek, Woodford Reserve -ga rang va o'ziga xos lazzat beruvchi, har bir tomchi kuygan va qovurilgan oq emanga singib ketishini ta'minlaydigan, dunyodagi issiqlik aylanadigan yagona barrel uylardan biri bilan faxrlanamiz. ”

Bugun men “Double Eaked ” ifodasini yaqindan ko'rib chiqayapman: Woodford Reserve ‘s klassik to'g'ri burbonidagi qiziqarli burilish. Viski birinchi navbatda odatdagidek yangi, oq eman bochkalarida pishadi, lekin shishani quyishdan oldin, u qattiq qovurilgan, engil kuydirilgan bochkaga o'tkaziladi. Keyin u ABV 43,2% da shishaga solinadi.

Burun: The Burbon Muqaddas Uch Birligi albatta bu erda: yog'och, vanilya va karamel. Jigarrang shakar, pekmez, pecan pirogi, karamel siropi va asalli sirlangan popkornli shirin va yurakni quvontiradigan burun. Bu, ehtimol, men bu erda birinchi marta aytgandim, lekin bu dram meni kinoteatrga Bredli Kuper va Jennifer Lourens o'ynagan "Rom-Com" filmini tomosha qilish kabi his qiladi va "Ha, bu ibora, albatta, kino dram! Men allaqachon o'zimni divanda ko'rpaga o'ralgan holda tasavvur qila olgandim, atrofimda kuzgi xushbo'y shamlar bor edi va #8230 #NoorryImOkay

Tanglay: Hey asalim! Bu juda burbon-y bu erda & #8230 #NoShitSherlock. Kuygan karamel, qovurilgan pecan yong'oqlari, eman ziravorlari, quritilgan mevalar va bu "ikki barobar eman" va "Woodford zaxirasi" o'rtasidagi farq, albatta, tanglayda ko'rinadi. Albatta, bu siz burbondan kutgan narsadir, lekin to'g'ri burilish va chuqurlik bilan, bu sizning kundalik viskingizdan yutib yuborish va shkafga qo'shish uchun qiziqarli narsaga aylantiradi! Hali ham burbon kashfiyot safarini boshlamoqchi bo'lganlar uchun mukammal boshlang'ich viski bo'lib qolmoqda.


Aralash skotch viski

Sotilgan skotchning ko'p qismi aralashtiriladi va skotch kokteyllari uchun afzaldir. Ular har xil ingredientlar bilan aralashtirishga moyil bo'lib, ko'pincha bitta molga qaraganda ancha arzon narxda sotiladi.

Yagona maltlarning ta'mi har bir alohida qariganidan keyin bir necha oy mobaynida donli viskilarga solingan holda yumshatiladi. Skotch aralashmalari - bu san'at va har bir skotch uyining o'z maxfiy retsepti va usta blenderi bor.

Aniq aralashmalar ko'pincha noma'lum va juda o'ziga xos bo'lsa -da, 20 dan 25 gacha viskilarning aralashmasida ishlatilishi odatiy hol emas, ularning 20-50 foizi bitta solodli viskidan iborat. Yuqori darajadagi aralashtirilgan skotchlar ko'proq maltlarni o'z ichiga oladi, bu esa yanada chuqur ta'mga olib keladi.

Birlashtirilgan skotch haqida gap ketganda, brendlar orasida katta xilma -xillik mavjud. Eng mashhurlaridan ba'zilari The Black Grouse, Chivas Regal, Dewars va Johnnie Walker. Taxminan 20 dollardan bir necha yuzgacha bo'lgan har bir narx nuqtasida aralash skotchlarni topish qiyin bo'lmaydi.


Burbon ertaklari bekor qilindi: etti burbon afsonasi haqiqati

Yangi burbon distillash zavodlari deyarli har hafta ochilgandek.

Burbonlar ro'yxati bar va restoranlarda tobora kengayib bormoqda.

Hamdo'stlikdagi omborlarda qariyb 6,5 million barrel burbon qarib turibdi, bu Kentukkian uchun bir yarim barrelga to'g'ri keladi.

Qisqacha aytganda, biz spirtli ichimliklar sanoati (oxirgi besh yil ichida 1,1 milliard dollarlik kapital qo'yilmalar) yaqin kelajakda ham davom etadigan burbonli bum davrasida turibmiz.

Darhaqiqat, Mark Tven aytgan va tez -tez burbon doiralarida iqtibos keltiradigan mantrani shunday deyish mumkin: "Hamma narsaning ko'pligi yomon bo'lishi mumkin. Ammo juda yaxshi viski hech qachon etarli bo'lmaydi. "

Har qanday vaqtni distillash fabrikalarida rang -barang va zavqli sayohatlar bilan o'tkazing yoki shisha markalardagi nusxalarini o'qib, har xil markalar tarixini aytib bering va tez -tez Tvenga tegishli bo'lgan boshqa aforizm esga tushadi: "Haqiqat yaxshilikka to'sqinlik qilmasin. hikoya. "

Ko'plab ajoyib burbon hikoyalari mavjud. Ulardan ba'zilari hatto haqiqatdir. Ularning ko'pchiligi tarixiy mavzu bilan boshlanadigan va butun tarixiy gobelen to'qigan ijodiy marketing xodimlarining izzati bilan keladi.

Keyin, ma'lum miqdordagi beg'ubor tartibsizlik paydo bo'ladi.

Masalan, siz "burbon va viskidan qanday farq bor?" Deganingizni (yoki ehtimol so'raganingizni) tez -tez eshitgansiz. Javob: burbon - viski. Bu dunyodagi turli xil viski turlaridan biridir. Boshqa misollarga javdar, skotch va irland viskisini kiritish mumkin. Hammasi distillangan donalardan tayyorlanadi, lekin bu donalar nima bo'lishidan va distillash jarayonining ba'zi tafsilotlaridan farq qiladi.

Shunday qilib, bu erda, milliy burbonlik merosi oyi vaqtida, tez -tez uchrab turadigan burbon noto'g'ri tushunchalariga va ba'zi hollarda baland ertaklarga tushuntirishlar va tuzatishlar kiritiladi. Ular aniq tartibda ko'rsatilmagan.

Burbonni faqat Kentukki shtatida tayyorlash mumkin

Aslida, burbonni AQShning istalgan joyida tayyorlash mumkin. Kongress 1964 yil may oyida "... Burbon viskisini AQShning o'ziga xos mahsuloti deb tan olish to'g'risida" qaror qabul qildi.

Bu Kentukki distillashchilar uyushmasining (kybourbon.com) ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, barcha burbonlarning 95 foizi Kentukki shtatida ishlab chiqariladi. Shuni ham ta'kidlash kerakki, Bardstaun o'zini "Dunyoning Burbon poytaxti" deb tasavvur qilsa ham - va ehtimol, hatto ma'lum bo'lgan koinot - burbonning uchdan bir qismi aynan Luisvillda ishlab chiqariladi. Buning uchun Braun-Forman va Heaven Xill burbonli kuch uylariga minnatdorchilik bildirishingiz mumkin.

Viski Burbon okrugi sharafiga nomlangan

Balki. Haqiqat shundaki, bu ism qanday paydo bo'lganini hech kim bilmaydi. Mashhur hikoyalardan biri shundaki, viski olti oy yoki undan ko'proq vaqt davomida Kentukki shtatining Limestone shahridan (hozirgi Maysvil) Nyu -Orleangacha ketayotganda yoqilgan bochkalarda rang oldi. Nyu-Orleandagi konyakni yaxshi ko'radigan (va konyakdan mahrum bo'lgan) frantsuz sobiq patsi yuklarning hisob-fakturalariga "Burbon okrugi, Kentukki" yozilgan "qizil viski" ta'mini ishlab chiqdi.

Tarixchi Maykl Vich o'zining "Kentukki Burbon viskisi: Amerika merosi" asarida bu afsonaga oydinlik kiritib, Kentukki markazidan viski yuborilgan Limestone port shahri Burbon okrugi tarkibiga kirganligini tushuntirdi (o'sha paytda Virjiniya shtatining bir qismi) ) juda qisqa vaqt ichida. Viski burbon deb nomlana boshlagach, ohaktosh 30 yildan ko'proq vaqt davomida Meyson okrugining bir qismi bo'lgan.

Veach, ehtimol, bu ism "... Burbon ko'chasidagi Nyu -Orleanning eski viskisini ichgan va" Burbon ko'chasidagi viski "ni so'rashni boshlagan daryo sayohatchilaridan kelib chiqqan bo'lishi mumkin deb taxmin qildi.

Burbonni "burbon" deb atash uchun kamida ikki yoshda bo'lish kerak.

"Burbon bo'lish uchun burbon qancha yoshda bo'lishi kerak?" Bu eng sevimli, burbon ta'mli hiyla-nayrangli savol. Javob: "Aniq, yangi tayyorlangan viski hali ham qarib ketadigan bochkaning emaniga tegsa, u" burbon "bo'ladi".

Ikki yoshni tez-tez eslatib o'tishadi, chunki "to'g'ri burbon" deb nomlanish uchun uni kamida ikki yilga qaratish kerak. Fred Minnik "Burbon Qiziqarli - aqlli ichuvchilar uchun oddiy tatib ko'rish qo'llanmasi" da tushuntirganidek, "Distilleriyalar, agar burbon to'rt yoshga to'lmagan bo'lsa, shishaga yosh qo'yishi shart".

Minnik, shuningdek, agar har xil yoshdagi bochkalar butilkaga quyish uchun aralashtirilgan bo'lsa, shishadagi yosh to'g'risidagi yozuv eng yosh viskiga berilishi kerakligini aytdi. Olti, sakkiz va 10 yoshli burbonlar to'plami va shishaga solingan narsalarni "olti yoshli" deb atash kerak. Albatta, bu erda yosh to'g'risidagi ma'lumot ixtiyoriydir, chunki qarish to'rt yildan ko'proq davom etgan.

To'rt yoshga to'lmaganida, "36 oylik" kabi yosh haqidagi bayonotlarni ko'rish odatiy hol emas. Bu, ayniqsa, naqd pulga muhtoj bo'lgan va o'z zaxirasida uzoq o'tirishga qodir bo'lmagan juda kichik distillash zavodlarining burbonlari uchun to'g'ri keladi. Ehtimol, ular viski tovushini ikki raqamli raqam yordamida eski qilishga harakat qilayotgandir. Ammo bir necha qultumdan keyin ham, ko'pchilik burbon ixlosmandlari matematikani qila oladilar.

Qadimgi Forester birinchi shisha burbon edi

Shisha idishlar ishlab chiqarish ishonchli va iqtisodiy jihatdan foydali bo'lmaguncha, odatiy amaliyot shundaki, o'z idishingizni mahalliy boqqa yoki salonga olib borib, uni bochkadan to'ldirish edi. Shubhasiz, bunday kelishuvda vijdonsiz chakana sotuvchilarga, agar yangi barrel kelishidan oldin zaxiralar tushib keta boshlasa, barrellarini ko'paytirish imkoniyatlari ko'p edi.

Eng yaxshi o'zgarish shunchaki, tobora kamayib borayotgan viskini suv bilan to'ldirish edi. Ammo bu spirtning konsentratsiyasini pasaytirdi va suyuqlikning rangini ochdi. Bu suyultirishlarning umumiy echimlari orasida kerosinni bochkaga quyish va choydan tortib o'rik sharbatigacha kreozotgacha qoraytiruvchi vositalarni qo'llash orqali spirt qo'shish bor edi. Yum.

Viski sotuvchisi Jorj Garvin Braun kiring, u 1870 yilda Old Forester markali burbonini faqat muhrlangan idishlarda sotishga va'da qilgan, uning sifati yorliqdagi imzosi bilan kafolatlangan. Bu bugungi kunda Old Foresterni ishlab chiqaruvchi Brown-Forman korporatsiyasining, shuningdek Woodford Reserve burbon va Jek Daniels Tennessi viskisini asos solgan.

"Birinchi shishali burbon" - bu bugungi kunda Old Forester yorliqlarida paydo bo'ladigan yorliq chizig'i. Ammo Maykl Vich kichik bir ogohlantirishga ega: "Eski Forester faqat butilkalarda sotiladigan birinchi burbon edi".

O'z intervyusida Veach menga 1860 -yillarda kanadalik distillashchi Xiram Uolker o'zining viskisini (burbon emas) butilkalarda sotayotganini aytdi. Uyga yaqinroq, Filson Tarixiy Jamiyati to'plamidagi 1850 yildagi albomda Miller ismli Louisville printerining "Old Bourbon viskisi - Samuel Jacobs & amp Co., Louisville, Ky" yorliqlari bor. va "Old Old Burbon viskisi - Geo. Uelbi, Louisville, Ky. "

"Yorliqlarning mavjudligi shuni ko'rsatadiki, ularni joylashtirish uchun idishlar bor edi", dedi Veach. Uning taxmin qilishicha, ba'zi do'konlar cheklangan miqdordagi viskini shisha idishlarda "xaridorni o'tkazib yubormaslik uchun" sotishgan, agar kimdir o'z konteynerisiz kelgan bo'lsa.

"[Jorj Garvin] Braunning qilgan ishi, ayniqsa, hayratlanarli edi, chunki butilkalar hali qo'lda ishlangan va ishlab chiqarish qimmat edi. Faqat 10 yoki 15 yil o'tgach, ularni mashinalarda ishlab chiqarish mumkin edi ».

Reklama

Braun iste'molchilar shishasiz mahsulot uchun mukofot to'lashga tayyor ekanliklarini aytib, qimor o'ynadi, bu esa ularga toza viski olishlariga ishontiradi. U haq bo'lib chiqdi.

Eski uslubdagi kokteyl Louisville Pendennis klubida ixtiro qilingan

Burbon, shakar, achchiq va ozgina mevalardan yasalgan "Old Fashioned" modasi Louisvilning "rasmiy mexnatidir". (Rasmiy kokteylga ega bo'lgan shaharda yashayotganimizdan xursand va faxrlanamiz.) "Old Fashioned" ning fuqarolik belgisining sababi shundaki, uning yaratilishi shaharning Pendennis klubiga yuklangan.

Kokteylshunos Deyv Vandrix Jeyms Beard bilan mukofotlangan "Imbibe!" Kitobida 1869 yilda "Chikago Tribune" jurnalida "Eski moda" ga havola qilgan. Pendennis klubi 1881 yilgacha o'z eshiklarini ochmadi. Bundan tashqari, Chikagodagi barmen Teodor Proulx 1888 yildagi bar yo'riqnomasida Old Fashioned retseptini e'lon qildi.

Bu vaqt jadvaliga duch kelgan Luisvill kelib chiqishi, biz Pendennisda yaratilgan versiya, biz eski uslub deb bilamiz. Ammo bu da'vo o'zini oqlaydimi?

Qizig'i shundaki, men elektron pochta orqali Wonderichga etib bordim va u menga "Imbibe!" Dagi o'z materialini kengaytirib javob berdi.

"Martin Kuneo, Klub o'zining eskirgan uslubini ixtiro qilgani uchun ishongan (asl nusxasini ixtiro qilish da'vosi asossiz), barmen edi. 1875 yilda tug'ilgan, 1906 yilgacha barmenlik qila boshlagan ... keyin Pendennisda, 1913 yilga qadar. U bu erda taqiq bilan ishlagan (1930 yilda pivo ichgani uchun hibsga olingan), 1940 yildan 1942 yilgacha nafaqaga chiqqan. 1943 yilda vafot etgan.

[Cuneo] 1913 yilda mashhur bo'lgan va ajoyib ichimliklar ishlab chiqargan, u o'zining Julepsining yuksakligi uchun gazetalarga yozilgan. Pendennis klubi ham mikologiyaning markazi sifatida tan olingan va mashhur va mashhur bo'lgan bir qancha kitoblarga retseptlar qo'shgan. Afsuski, ular Julep, Pendennis kokteyli (eskirgan emas) va ularning Eggnogi edi.

1941 yilda yoki o'sha erda (u nafaqaga chiqqan) Ishlar taraqqiyoti ma'muriyatiga bergan va uni ishlab chiqqan, sirop emas, shakar ishlatgan va meva (apelsin va gilos) garnitür sifatida ishlatilgan, deb aytgan Cuneo-ning eskirib qolgan retsepti. In - shunday qilib, Pendennis hozirgi vaqtda mexnatga bo'lgan da'vogarligini bildirgan uchta narsadan ikkitasiga zid (ikkinchisi - Angostura achchiqlaridan foydalanish, boshqa turlardan emas).

Endi apelsin bo'lagi allaqachon Hoffman uyida (Nyu-Yorkdagi eng yaxshi bar, 1870-1913) paydo bo'ladi. Old Fashioned in 1905. Angostura achchiqlari har xil ko'rinadi, lekin 1912 yilga kelib ichimlikda tez-tez uchraydi. "Old Fashioned" meva -chevasi 1950 -yillar va hatto 1960 -yillargacha o'ynamagan.

Menda Pendennis klubiga qarshi hech qanday mol go'shti yo'q: uning ichimlik haqidagi da'vosi - asl nusxasi - 1931 yilda, klub tomonidan emas, balki "Old Waldorf bar kunlari" kitobida. "O'shanda buni rad etishning iloji yo'q edi va ular klubda yaxshi ichimliklar tayyorlashgani hammaga ma'lum edi. Ammo zamonaviy tadqiqot vositalari yordamida bu da'voni rad etish oson. Men ular buni inoyat bilan tan olishlarini va hech qachon asoslanmagan da'voni isbotlash uchun igna ko'zidan o'tib ketishdan ko'ra, Martin qilgan mahoratini sharaflab, o'zlari tayyorlagan ajoyib ichimliklarni talab qilishlarini istardim.

Mana, biz ham. Ammo men hali ham Louisville eski modani rasman qabul qilganidan xursandman.

Manxetten kokteyli Nyu -Yorkdagi Manxetten klubida ixtiro qilingan

"Old Fashioned"-bu afsonalar ishlab chiqariladigan yagona viski kokteyli emas. Manxetten haqidagi haqiqiy voqea uchun men Shimoliy Karolina shtatining Greensboro shahridagi Guilford Texnik Jamiyati Kollejining oshpazlik san'ati va mehmondo'stlik menejmenti direktori va "Manxetten: viski klassikasiga zamonaviy qo'llanma" muallifi Albert Shmidga qo'ng'iroq qildim. U kelib chiqishi haqidagi hikoyani tezda yo'q qildi.

"Ichkilik haqidagi eng keng tarqalgan fikr shundaki, u Manxetten klubida kechki ovqat uchun, Samuel Tilden Nyu -York gubernatori etib saylangani sharafiga yaratilgan. Lady Randolf Cherchill (Jenni Jerom) styuardessa bo'lishi kerak edi. Ammo u bo'lolmasdi. "

Shmid tushuntirdiki, kechki ovqat Manxetten klubida bo'lib o'tdi, lekin u 1874 yil noyabrda edi. Lady Randolf Angliyada edi va shu oyning 31 -kuni u o'g'li Uinstonni dunyoga keltirdi. Atlantikani okean layneri orqali kesib o'tish uchun besh -olti hafta kerak bo'ldi, shuning uchun u Nyu -Yorkda bo'lolmasdi.

"Ehtimol, Jenni Jerom haqidagi hikoya u amerikalik bo'lgani uchun boshlangan va otasi bir paytlar klub qarorgohi bo'lgan binoga ega bo'lgan", - tushuntirdi Shmid.

"Boshqa keng tarqalgan hikoya - Manxetten klubi a'zosi, sudya Charlz Genri Truaksga vazn yo'qotish uchun martini ichishni to'xtatish buyurilgan. Taxminlarga ko'ra, Truax klub barmenidan boshqa ichimlikni aralashtirishni so'ragan va natijada Manxetten bo'lgan. Afsuski, ikkita kokteylning kaloriya miqdori aynan bir xil ».

Shmidning fikricha, ehtimol bu hikoya orol nomi bilan atalgan Blek ismli barmen haqida. "G'alati,-deb o'yladi u,-chunki Golland kolonistlari bilan savdo qilgan tubjoy amerikaliklar bu nomni berishgan, chunki bu" biz mast bo'lgan joy "degan ma'noni anglatadi.

Xo'sh, bu o'rinli ko'rinadi.

Distilling taqiqdan oldingi vaqtdan beri birinchi marta Luisvillning viski qatoriga qaytmoqda

Bu G'arbiy Main ko'chadagi so'nggi bir nechta loyihalar uchun yig'ilish bo'ldi. Evan Uilyams Burbon tajribasi mikro distillash zavodida birinchi o'rinni egalladi. Tengsiz distillash zavodi va Anxelning hasadgo'yligi - bu viski (ham burbon, ham javdar) ishlab chiqaradigan katta operatsiyalar. Old Forester yaqinda kompaniyaning ofislari bo'lgan blokda distillashni boshlaydi. Va shahar yo'lak bo'ylab tarixiy belgilar bilan to'ldirilgan Burbon tumanini yaratdi.

Ammo, aslida, Whisky Rowda hech qachon haqiqiy distillash qurilmalari bo'lmagan.

"Viski satrining omborlari va distillash idoralari va burbon bilan bog'liq boshqa korxonalari bor edi, lekin viski u erda distillangan emas", deydi Karla Karlton, "Bourbon Babe" deb nomlangan blogda va "Barrel Stress Bourbon-portlovchi o'sishi" Amerika viski. "

"Viski qatori, albatta, o'z nomiga loyiq edi, - davom etdi Karlton, - Kentukkidagi deyarli har bir pivo zavodida o'z mahsulotlarini sotish va jo'natish uchun ofislari bor edi."

Darhaqiqat, 1890 yildagi shahar ma'lumotnomasini tekshirish shuni ko'rsatadiki, burbon sanoati bilan bog'liq 125 dan ortiq korxona bor edi. Nafaqat idoralar va omborlar, balki viski ulgurji savdogarlari, don savdogarlari, yorliqli printerlar, savdo nashrlari, shisha ishlab chiqaruvchilar va boshqalar. Demak, distillash nihoyat Viski qatoriga kelganini olqishlash to'g'ri bo'lardi.

Karlton rozi bo'ldi va, albatta, bir vaqtlar "Viski Uoll-strit" nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan ko'p blokli maydonda tarixiy e'tirof va yangi shov-shuvni ko'rganidan xursand. •

Syuzan Reygler "Kentukki Burbon mamlakati: asosiy sayohat qo'llanmasi" kitoblari muallifi va "Burbonni tatib ko'rish daftarchasi" va "Kentukki Burbon kokteyli kitobi" hammuallifi.


Tarkibi

Distillashni, ehtimol, 18-asrning oxirida hozirgi Kentukki shahriga skotslar, skots-irlandlar va boshqa ko'chmanchilar (shu jumladan ingliz, irland, uels, nemis va frantsuzlar) olib kelishgan, ular bu erga astoydil dehqonchilik qila boshlagan. Burbonning viskining alohida shakli sifatida kelib chiqishi yaxshi hujjatlashtirilmagan. Ko'p qarama -qarshi afsonalar va da'volar bor, ba'zilari boshqalarga qaraganda ishonchli.

Masalan, burbonning kashfiyoti ko'pincha, mahsulotni birinchi bo'lib qarigan eman daraxtida qarg'alashgani aytilgan, Kentukki shtatining ko'plab birinchilari (masalan, to'ldirish fabrikasi, qog'oz tegirmon, arqon) bilan bog'langan, suvga cho'mdiruvchi vazir va distillashchi Ilyos Kreygga tegishli. bochkalar, bu jarayon burbonga jigarrang rang va o'ziga xos ta'm beradi. [7] Burbon okrugida, o'sha paytdagi Fayett okrugidagi Kreyg distillash zavodidan graflik bo'ylab, Jeykob Spirs ismli distillash mashinasi birinchi bo'lib o'z mahsulotini Burbon viskisi deb belgilagan.

Garchi mashhur va tez -tez takrorlansa -da, Kreyg afsonasi apokrifikdir. Xuddi shunday, Nayzlarning hikoyasi mahalliy sevimli, lekin kamdan -kam hollarda okrug tashqarisida takrorlanadi. 19 -asr oxirida hozirgi shaklga aylangan burbonning yagona "ixtirochisi" bo'lmasa kerak. Umuman olganda, har qanday don turidan viski tayyorlash mumkin, viskini qarish va bochkalarni yaxshi ta'mga aylantirish amaliyoti Evropada asrlar davomida ma'lum bo'lgan. [8] Burbon okrugi etimologiyasining kech sanasi Louisville tarixchisi Maykl Vichni uning haqiqiyligi to'g'risida bahslashishga olib keldi. He proposes the whiskey was named after Bourbon Street in New Orleans, a major port where shipments of Kentucky whiskey sold well as a cheaper alternative to French cognac. [1]

Another proposed origin of the name is the association with the geographic area known as Old Bourbon, consisting of the original Bourbon County in Virginia organized in 1785. This region included much of today's Eastern Kentucky, including 34 of the modern counties. [9] It included the current Bourbon County in Kentucky, which became a county when Kentucky separated from Virginia as a new state in 1792. [10] [11] [12]

When American pioneers pushed west of the Allegheny Mountains following the American Revolution, the first counties they founded covered vast regions. One of these original, huge counties was Bourbon, established in 1785 and named after the French royal family. While this vast county was being carved into many smaller ones, early in the 19th century, many people continued to call the region Old Bourbon. Located within Old Bourbon was the principal port on the Ohio River, Maysville, Kentucky, from which whiskey and other products were shipped. "Old Bourbon" was stencilled on the barrels to indicate their port of origin. Old Bourbon whiskey was different because it was the first corn whiskey most people had ever tasted. In time, burbon became the name for any corn-based whiskey. [12]

Although many distilleries operated in Bourbon County historically, no distilleries operated there between 1919, when Prohibition began in Kentucky, and late 2014, when a small distillery opened – a period of 95 years. [13] [14] Prohibition was devastating to the bourbon industry. With the ratification of the 18th amendment in 1919, all distilleries were forced to stop operating, although a few were granted permits to bottle existing stocks of medicinal whiskey. Later, a few were allowed to resume production when the stocks ran out. Distilleries that were granted permits to produce or bottle medicinal whiskey included Brown-Forman, Frankfort Distillery, James Thompson and Brothers, American Medical Spirits, the Schenley Distillery (modern-day Buffalo Trace Distillery), and the A. Ph. Stitzel Distillery. [15]

A refinement often dubiously [16] credited to James C. Crow is the sour mash process, which conditions each new fermentation with some amount of spent mash. Spent mash is also known as spent beer, distillers' spent grain, stillage, and slop or feed mash, so named because it is used as animal feed. The acid introduced when using the sour mash controls the growth of bacteria that could taint the whiskey and creates a proper pH balance for the yeast to work.

A concurrent resolution adopted by the United States Congress in 1964 declared bourbon to be a "distinctive product of the United States" and asked "the appropriate agencies of the United States Government . [to] take appropriate action to prohibit importation into the United States of whiskey designated as 'Bourbon Whiskey'." [17] [18] Federal regulation now defines bourbon whiskey to only include bourbon produced in the United States. [19]

In recent years, bourbon and Tennessee whiskey, which is sometimes regarded as a different type of spirit but generally meets the legal requirements to be called bourbon, have enjoyed significant growth in popularity. The industry trade group Distilled Spirits Council of the United States (DISCUS) tracks sales of bourbon and Tennessee whiskey together. [3]

According to DISCUS, during 2009–2014, the volume of 9-liter cases of whiskey increased by 28.5% overall. [4] Higher-end bourbon and whiskeys experienced the greatest growth. [4] Gross supplier revenues (including federal excise tax) for U.S. bourbon and Tennessee whiskey increased by 46.7% over the 2009–2014 period, with the greatest growth coming from high-end products. [4] In 2014, more than 19 million nine-liter cases of bourbon and Tennessee whiskey were sold in the U.S., generating almost $2.7 billion in wholesale distillery revenue. [4] U.S. exports of bourbon whiskey surpassed $1 billion for the first time in 2013 distillers hailed the rise of a "golden age of Kentucky bourbon" and predicted further growth. [3] In 2014, it was estimated that U.S. bourbon whiskey exports surpassed $1 billion, making up the majority of the U.S. total of $1.6 billion in spirits exports. [3] Major export markets for U.S. spirits are, in descending order: Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, and France. [3] The largest percentage increases in U.S. exports were, in descending order: Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Bahamas, Israel, and United Arab Emirates. [3] Key elements of growth in the markets showing the largest increases have been changes of law, trade agreements, and reductions of tariffs, as well as increased consumer demand for premium-category spirits. [20]

Bourbon's legal definition varies somewhat from country to country, but many trade agreements require that the name "bourbon" be reserved for products made in the United States. The U.S. regulations for labeling and advertising bourbon apply only to products made for consumption within the United States they do not apply to distilled spirits made for export. [21] Canadian law requires products labeled bourbon to be made in the United States and also to conform to the requirements that apply within the United States. But in countries other than the United States and Canada, products labeled bourbon may not adhere to the same standards. For example, in the European Union, products labeled as bourbon are not required to conform to all the regulations that apply within the United States, although they still must be made in the U.S.

The Federal Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, codified under 27 CFR §5.22(b)(1)(i), states bourbon made for U.S. consumption [21] must be:

  • Produced in the United States and Territories (Puerto Rico) and the District of Columbia [22]
  • Made from a grain mixture that is at least 51% corn[23]
  • Aged in new, charred oak containers [23] to no more than 160 (U.S.) proof (80% alcohol by volume) [23]
  • Entered into the container for aging at no more than 125 proof (62.5% alcohol by volume) [23]
  • Bottled (like other whiskeys) at 80 proof or more (40% alcohol by volume) [24]

Bourbon has no minimum specified duration for its aging period. [25] Products aged for as little as three months are sold as bourbon. [26] The exception is straight bourbon, which has a minimum aging requirement of two years. In addition, any bourbon aged less than four years must include an age statement on its label. [27] [28]

Bourbon that meets the above requirements, has been aged for a minimum of two years, and does not have added coloring, flavoring, or other spirits may be – but is not required to be – called straight bourbon. [29]

  • Bourbon that is labeled as straight that has been aged under four years must be labeled with the duration of its aging. [30]
  • Bourbon that has an age stated on its label must be labeled with the age of the youngest whiskey in the bottle (not counting the age of any added neutral grain spirits in a bourbon that is labeled as blended, as neutral-grain spirits are not considered whiskey under the regulations and are not required to be aged at all). [27]

Bottled-in-bond bourbon is a sub-category of straight bourbon and must be aged at least four years.

Bourbon that is labeled blended (or as a blend) may contain added coloring, flavoring, and other spirits, such as un-aged neutral grain spirits, but at least 51% of the product must be straight bourbon. [31] [32]

"High rye bourbon" is not a legally defined term but usually means a bourbon with 20–35% rye. [33] High wheat bourbons are described as more mild and subdued compared to high-rye varieties. [34]

Bourbon that has been aged for fewer than three years cannot legally be referred to as whiskey (or whisky) in the EU. [35]

Geographic origin Edit

On May 4, 1964, the United States Congress recognized bourbon whiskey as a "distinctive product of the United States" by concurrent resolution. Bourbon may be produced anywhere in the United States where it is legal to distill spirits, but most brands are produced in Kentucky, where bourbon production has a strong historical association. [36] The filtering of iron-free water through the high concentrations of limestone that are unique to the area is often touted by bourbon distillers in Kentucky as a signature step in the bourbon-making process. [37]

On August 2, 2007, the U.S. Senate passed a resolution sponsored by Senator Jim Bunning (R-KY) officially declaring September 2007 to be National Bourbon Heritage Month, commemorating the history of bourbon whiskey. [38] Notably, the resolution claimed that Congress had declared bourbon to be "America's Native Spirit" in its 1964 resolution. [38] However, the 1964 resolution did not contain such a statement it declared bourbon to be a distinctive product identifiable with the United States (in a similar way that Scotch is considered identifiable with Scotland). [17] [39] The resolution was passed again in 2008. [39]

As of 2018, approximately 95% of all bourbon is produced in Kentucky, according to the Kentucky Distillers' Association. As of 2018, there were 68 whiskey distilleries in Kentucky, this was up 250 percent in the past ten years. [40] At that time, the state had more than 8.1 million barrels of bourbon that were aging – a number that greatly exceeds the state's population of about 4.3 million. [41] [3] [42] [43]

Bardstown, Kentucky, is home to the annual Bourbon Festival held each September. It has been called the "Bourbon Capital of the World" by the Bardstown Tourism Commission [44] and the Kentucky Bourbon Festival organizers [45] who have registered the phrase as a trademark. The Kentucky Bourbon Trail is the name of a tourism promotion program organized by the Kentucky Distillers' Association that is aimed at attracting visitors to the distilleries in Kentucky, particularly Four Roses (Lawrenceburg), Heaven Hill (Bardstown), Jim Beam (Clermont), Maker's Mark (Loretto), Town Branch (Lexington), Wild Turkey (Lawrenceburg), and Woodford Reserve (Versailles). [46]

Tennessee is home to other major bourbon makers, although most prefer to call their product "Tennessee whiskey" instead, including giant Jack Daniel's. It is legally defined under Tennessee House Bill 1084, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and at least one other international trade agreement as the recognized name for a straight bourbon whiskey produced in Tennessee. [47] [48] It is also required to meet the legal definition of bourbon under Canadian law. [49]

Although some Tennessee whiskey makers maintain that a pre-aging filtration through chunks of maple charcoal, known as the Lincoln County Process and legally mandated since 2013, [A] make its flavor distinct from bourbon, U.S. regulations defining bourbon neither require nor prohibit its use. [25] [47] [52] [53]

Bourbon also was and is made in other U.S. states. [54] [55] [56] The largest bourbon distiller outside of Kentucky and Tennessee is MGP of Indiana, which primarily wholesales its spirits products to bottling companies that sell them under about 50 different brand names – in some cases, misleadingly marketed as "craft" whiskey, despite being produced at a large wholesaler's factory. [57] [58]

To be legally sold as bourbon, the whiskey's mash bill requires a minimum of 51% corn, with the remainder being any cereal grain. [2] A proposed change to U.S. regulations will expand allowable "grains" to include seeds of the pseudocereals amaranth, buckwheat, and quinoa. [59] A mash bill that contains wheat instead of rye produces what is known as a wheated bourbon. [60] [61] The grain is ground and mixed with water. Usually mash from a previous distillation is added to ensure consistency across batches, creating a sour mash. Finally, yeast is added, and the mash is fermented. It is distilled to (typically) between 65% and 80% alcohol using either a traditional alembic (or pot still) or the much less expensive continuous still. Most modern bourbons are initially run off using a column still and then redistilled in a "doubler" (alternatively known as a "thumper" or "retort") that is basically a pot still. [62]

The resulting clear spirit, called "white dog", is placed in charred new oak containers for aging. In practice, these containers are generally barrels made from American white oak. The spirit gains its color and much of its flavor from the caramelized sugars and vanillins in the charred wood. Straight bourbon must be aged at least two years, and blended bourbon must contain at least 51% straight bourbon on a proof gallon basis (i.e., most of the alcohol in the blend must be from straight bourbon). [63] The remainder of the spirits in a blended bourbon may be neutral grain spirits that are not aged at all. If a product is labeled merely as bourbon whiskey rather than straight or blended, no specific minimum aging period is prescribed – only that the product has been "stored at not more than 62.5% alcohol by volume (125 proof) in charred new oak containers". [63] Bourbons gain more color and flavor the longer they age in wood. Changes to the spirit also occur due to evaporation and chemical processes such as oxidation. Lower-priced bourbons tend to be aged relatively briefly. Even for higher-priced bourbons, "maturity" rather than a particular age duration is often the goal, as over-aging bourbons can negatively affect the flavor of the bourbon (making it taste woody, bitter, or unbalanced).

After maturing, bourbon is withdrawn from the barrel and is typically filtered and diluted with water. It is then bottled at no less than 80 US proof (40% abv). [24] Although most bourbon whiskey is sold at 80 US proof, other common proofs are 86, 90, and 100. All "bottled in bond" bourbon is 100 proof. Some higher-proof bottlings are marketed as "barrel proof", meaning they have not been diluted or have been only lightly diluted after removal from the barrels. Bourbon whiskey may be sold at less than 80 proof but must be labeled as "diluted bourbon".

After processing, barrels remain saturated with up to 10 U.S. gallons (38 liters) of bourbon, although 2–3 U.S. gallons (8–11 liters) is the norm. [64] They may not be reused for bourbon, and most are sold to distilleries in Canada, Scotland, Ireland, Mexico, and the Caribbean for aging other spirits. Some are employed in the manufacture of various barrel-aged products, including amateur and professionally brewed bourbon-barrel-aged beer, barbecue sauce, wine, hot sauce, and others. Since 2011, Jim Beam has employed barrel rinsing on a large scale to extract bourbon from its used barrels, mixing the extract with a 6-year-old Beam bourbon to create a 90-proof product that it sells as "Devil's Cut". [65]

The bottling operation for bourbon is the process of filtering, mixing together straight whiskey from different barrels (sometimes from different distilleries), diluting with water, blending with other ingredients (if producing blended bourbon), and filling containers to produce the final product that is marketed to consumers. By itself, the phrase "bottled by" means only that. Only if the bottler operates the distillery that produced the whiskey may "distilled by" be added to the label. [66]

Labeling requirements for bourbon and other alcoholic beverages (including the requirements for what is allowed to be called bourbon under U.S. law) are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. [67] No whiskey made outside the United States may be labeled bourbon or sold as bourbon inside the United States (and in various other countries that have trade agreements with the United States to recognize bourbon as a distinctive product of the United States).

A 2016 experiment by Louisville craft distiller Jefferson's Bourbon suggests that in the era before whiskey was routinely bottled at the distillery, Kentucky bourbon developed a superior taste because it was shipped in barrels, using water transport wherever practical. To test this theory, Jefferson's cofounder Trey Zoeller sent two barrels of the company's signature product to New York City via barge, first down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers and then along the Intracoastal Waterway. As a control, he brought a batch of the same whiskey that had remained in Louisville during the same period. Ga binoan Popular Mechanics writer Jacqueline Detwiler, who documented the test, the sample that made the waterborne journey "was mature beyond its age, richer, with new flavors of tobacco, vanilla, caramel, and honey. It was some of the best bourbon any of us had ever drunk." It was theorized that the action of gentle sloshing of the whiskey in barrels for a period of 2 to 4 weeks during the barge trip led to a dramatic improvement in smoothness and taste. Chemical analysis of the two samples revealed significant differences in molecular profiles, with the sample transported by water having a greater diversity of aromatic compounds. [68]

Bourbon is served in a variety of manners, including neat, diluted with water, over ice ("on the rocks"), with cola or other beverages in simple mixed drinks, and in cocktails, including the Manhattan, Bourbon Smash, the Old Fashioned, the whiskey sour, and the mint julep. Bourbon is also used in cooking and was historically used for medicinal purposes. [2]

Bourbon can be used in a variety of confections such as a banana bourbon syrup for waffles, as a flavoring for chocolate cake, or in fruit-based desserts like grilled peach sundaes served with salted bourbon-caramel or brown sugar shortcake with warmed bourbon peaches. It is an optional ingredient in several pie recipes traditional to American cuisine including pumpkin pie, where it can be combined with brown sugar and pecans to make a sweet and crunchy topping for the creamy pumpkin pie filling. [69] It can also be used as a flavoring in sauces for savory dishes like grit cakes with country ham served with bourbon mayonnaise, Kentucky bourbon chili or grilled flank steak. [70]


8. You can OD on edibles.

McDonough says: “There’s a lot of controversy over the word overdose, which has a connotation that it’s a fatal condition. With edibles there’s no such thing as a fatal overdose. It’s impossible—you𠆝 literally have to eat nine pounds of hash. If you have an alcohol overdose, you throw up and you have the spins. You’ve poisoned yourself essentially, but just because you didn’t die doesn’t mean it’s not an overdose.”


Photo courtesy Elise McDonough


Videoni tomosha qiling: ТЕЗКОР! УЗБЕКИСТОНДА АЯНЧЛИ ВОКИЯ ЮЗ БЕРДИ-АФСУС! (Yanvar 2022).